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Chennai-born Lux Ananthraman has created iTwin, a pair of identical USB drives that share data exclusively between them over any connection. The procedure is insert the USB drive you are carrying in any computer and you can access all your files securely and without the need for any third-party software. For iTwin, all you need is internet access. And it costs just about Rs 5,000

Singapore invention iTwin sweeps up awards

The latest accolade won by the device is the “Best of What’s New Award” by Popular Science Magazine in their computing category last month.

iTwin came out the winner among the top 100 new tech products selected from technologies from all over the world reviewed by the editors of the magazine.

Before that, iTwin picked up the Red Dot Product Design Award in July, and Frost & Sullivan’s New Product Innovation Award in 2010, The Straits Times reported.

In 2009, iTwin was the first Singapore start-up to be selected for participation in the prestigious Silicon Valley TechCrunch 50 start-up event.

iTwin is a two part device that can transfer data safely between any two online computers.

By plugging in one part into a computer, and the other detachable part into a second computer, users can upload, download or edit any file on the two computers.

As iTwin does not store data and the device can be remotely disabled, users are spared the worry of compromising sensitive information should the device be misplaced or stolen.

iTwin was developed in the laboratories of the Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R), a research institute of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR).

The idea for iTwin was born when co-founder and chief executive officer Lux Anantharaman wanted to check personal investments and finances stored on his home computer.

To achieve this, he thought of a simple yet secure remote file access solution, which was brought to life when he was a scientist at I2R.

Exploit Technologies Pte Ltd, the commercial arm of A*STAR, provided funding for a marketable prototype.

In 2009, the prototype made its debut at he International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in the US.

Mr Anantharaman said he believes that iTwin may ultimately replace the portable storage market, which currently comprises flash drives, portable hard disks and memory cards.

SINGAPORE, 8 November 2010 – iTwin is delighted to announce that it has been awarded
IDA / Amazon Web Services credits.
Under the “Open Call for Cloud Computing Proposals”, iTwin has been selected by the
Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore, and awarded free AWS credits. iTwin
will use these credits to route some of its encrypted traffic through the reliable infrastructure
of Amazon Web Services. iTwin is a pioneering user of AWS in Singapore. All iTwin data is
encrypted in transit and only the two halves of iTwin know the encryption key.
“These welcome and useful credits add to the honours garnered by iTwin. We believe iTwin
is going to be very successful because it makes secure remote file access really easy. As we
ready for our US launch, it’s great to have this support and recognition. It adds further support
to our belief that iTwin will be hugely appreciated by computer users that dislike the messy
configuration, logins and passwords of current remote access solutions, or are concerned about
losing confidential data when they lose a portable file storage device, like a USB flash drive”,
said iTwin’s CEO Lux Anantharaman.
Lux, together with Chief Operating Officer Kal Takru, founded the company, which is a spin-off
from Singapore’s Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR).
iTwin adds this award to several previous merits including being selected for the prestigious
TechCrunch50 event in Silicon Valley; TechCrunch TokyoCamp in Japan; a Singapore Design
Award (merit, product category); a Frost & Sullivan New Product Innovation Award, and
selection for e27 unConference and LaunchPad. iTwin was also selected to participate at
TechVentures 2010, at the Marina Bay Sands in Singapore.
High resolution images are available at:


  • What is an iTwin?
  • Is iTwin a USB flash drive?
  • How does it work?
  • Does iTwin use bluetooth, Wi-Fi?
  • Is one computer the master and the other the slave?
  • What are the plus points of iTwin over other file access services?
  • Does iTwin store data?
  • Can I put the computer to sleep or lock it so as to prevent unauthorized access to my local computer while I am away?

Getting Started

  • Why do I need two halves of iTwin?
  • How do I access my files while I’m on-the-go?
  • What if my home computer falls asleep while I’m out, on-the-go?
  • If I were to ask someone at home to drag and drop more files while I’m at work, would I be able to access the newly dragged and dropped files? Or can files only be shared when both halves of iTwin are ‘paired’ together in my home machine and then dragged and dropped?

Remote Editing

  • What software application gets used when I remotely edit a file?
  • Can you even edit video or image files remotely?
  • Can it be edited on both sides like google docs?


  • What has the press said?
  • What recognition has iTwin received?

Safety & Security

  • Just how secure is it?
  • But what about passwords?
  • What if I lose one half?
  • What if I lose both halves of iTwin?
  • Where do I enter the disable code, to disconnect the two halves of my iTwin?
  • What about firewalls?
  • Can I use it in a public computer?
  • Does the data go through some offsite iTwin server?
  • What about Malware?

Supported Configuration

  • What operating systems are currently supported?
  • I own multiple iTwins. Can I pair any two halves?
  • Am I able to pair two halves of differently colored iTwins?
  • Once disabled, can I reconnect the two halves of iTwin?
  • Can iTwin do one-to-many connections?
  • What if I have multiple user accounts on my computer?
  • Does iTwin work through all firewalls?
  • If I have a Mac with a Windows OS installed on a virtual machine, will iTwin work on that?

Troubleshooting Corner Cases

  • Does it work on an intranet setting without internet?
  • I am getting a message about iTwinTrust server and the time zone. What should I do?
  • Why can’t i open one of my remote files?
  • Why is iTwin not installing itself?

Question Not Answered Here?

  • Contact us here or email us directly at helpdesk@iTwin.com.

What is an iTwin?

iTwin is a revolutionary new file sharing and remote access device brought to you by a company called iTwin. It’s like two ends of a cable, without the cable. It’s as simple to use as a flash drive. It’s literally plug and play.iTwin can connect any two online computers anywhere in the world. iTwin enables you to have access to any or all of your home computer’s files and folders while you’re on-the-go. Similarly, you can also use iTwin to access to any or all of your office computer’s files and folders while on-the-go. There’s no in-built limit to the amount of storage you can access with iTwin while you’re on-the-go. The only limit is the size of your hard drives. The only other “limit” is the speed of your Internet connection. The faster it is, the better your experience.

You can select files for accessing later on-the-go, or you can edit them remotely, without the files leaving your computer. You can also back-up files to your home or office computer while you’re out on-the-go. It’s so easy, it’s unbelievable.

How does it work?

When you connect iTwin, you’ll see a regular window pop-up, just as you would if you plugged in a regular USB flash drive. Drag and drop files and folders into this window to share them – as many as you want. Leave your computer with one half of iTwin connected to it. Detach the other half of iTwin and take it with you. Wherever you go, you can remotely access the shared files, simply by plugging the half you are carrying into any online Windows computer, anywhere. iTwin allows you to transfer files to – or from – your home computer. Or your office computer. Or your friend’s, or your colleague’s! iTwin also allows you to edit the shared files on a remote computer, while keeping them on that remote computer, (no need to transfer those files before you edit them).For more details, see the iTwin user manual.

Is one computer the master and the other the slave?

No – iTwin comprises two exactly identical halves and information transfer goes from A to B or from B to A, whichever you prefer. The two halves are completely identical and this “twin” symmetry reflects the useful access and transfer capabilities of iTwin.

Just how secure is it?

When you connect iTwin to your computer, the two halves “pair” and create a secure key that only these two halves know. No one else knows this key – including the iTwin company. This means your data is completely secure. iTwin uses 256-bit AES encryption. This standard is comparable to that of the military or online banking services. On top of that, iTwin uses hardware crypto, not software, which makes iTwin’s encryption even more difficult to crack!

What are the plus points of iTwin over other file access services?

iTwin does not impose any storage limits or monthly fees. iTwin uses hardware-based access and security instead of just software. Software can be cumbersome. For remote file access, you would need to explicitly download software, install it, create accounts and worst of all, remember & type logins and passwords. We are not designed to remember more than a few passwords, and we are already overloaded with them. We reuse passwords, we use simple passwords. However, there is a simpler way to connect devices: using iTwin. iTwin makes secure connections very simple, removing all complexity.

But what about passwords?

You can set an optional password, for additional security. This is done during the “pairing” or initialization process. With the two halves connected and plugged into a USB port on your computer, proceed through the pairing process and then right-click the iTwin icon in your system tray. Select “Security Options” and then select “Set Password” from the menu. You can then enter a password which will be required each time you plug one half of your iTwin into a computer. This provides you with additional security, in case you lose one half of your iTwin and an unauthorized person attempts to use it.By default though, there’s no requirement to set a password.

Does iTwin store data?

iTwin is like two ends of a cable, without the cable. Just as a cable doesn’t store data, neither does iTwin. iTwin just gives you easy, highly secure access to your data. No data is stored on the device itself. So if you lose one half of iTwin, you don’t lose your data. You can share as much data as you choose. There’s no limit, except the speed of your broadband connection.

Can I put the computer to sleep or lock it so as to prevent unauthorized access to my local computer while I am away?

When iTwin is plugged into your computer, iTwin software will prevent your computer from entering sleep mode. This enables you to access your files remotely. You can definitely lock your computer screen by pressing Ctrl + Alt + Del and selecting “Lock Computer” option. You will still be able to access files remotely. You can also switch off your monitor, iTwin will still work. In fact, iTwin software will automatically switch the monitor according to your existing power setting.

What if I lose one half?

You can break the connection between the two halves of your iTwin by clicking on a disconnect link (a URL that we email you immediately when you pair the device). You can do this from anywhere with an Internet connection. You can also disconnect by entering a unique disconnect code into our website (we email you this disconnect code when you pair the two halves of iTwin).A very simple way to break the connection after losing one half, is that you can simply unplug the half that you didn’t lose. That way, no-one can access your data. (Don’t re-plug that half until you’ve found the missing half or until you’ve disconnected the two halves using our website or our disconnect link.)

If you still have one half of iTwin, you can buy a single half of iTwin from our website. Simply “pair” your old half with the new one, to create a new iTwin.

What if I lose both halves of iTwin?

Your data is completely safe, since iTwin doesn’t store any data on itself. (iTwin just gives you access to data that’s stored on one of your computers elsewhere). You can easily order a new iTwin from iTwin.com.


What about firewalls?

There should be nothing to configure. iTwin uses the same ports as your Internet browser. So long as you can shop at Amazon or access “https” websites, you can use iTwin without any firewall issues. (A “https” website is a website that allows you to enter passwords or other secure information.)

Why do I need two halves of iTwin?

The high-grade security of iTwin is created by the random and very secure unique crypto key that’s generated each time you pair the two halves. Only the two halves of iTwin know the key. You only need to carry one half with you, on-the-go. Both halves of iTwin must be plugged into two online computers at the same time, for iTwin to act like a connecting cable.

How do I access my files while I’m on-the-go?

Plug iTwin into your online computer (say, the one at your home). Install and launch it with one click. Drag and drop files and folders into the iTwin window to share them, just like you would with a flash drive. Drag as many files as you want. If you can’t decide which files or folders to select, just drag the whole hard drive (seriously)! Then, detach one half of iTwin and take it with you. (Leave your home computer powered on). While you’re on-the-go and you want access to those files, simply plug the half of iTwin you are carrying into any other online computer. You’ll see all your shared files. Click the iTwin icon in the Windows Tray to “switch” iTwin and share files from the computer you’re sitting at, to be accessed from your home computer.

What if my home computer falls asleep while I’m out, on-the-go?

If you leave one half of iTwin connected to your computer at home, iTwin won’t let your computer fall asleep. The monitor may power off after a while (depending on how you’ve computer’s power management settings). But the operating system of your computer will continue to function. This ensures that you have access to your files and folders. So if the computer you use for iTwin at home is a notebook or laptop, ensure that you leave it connected to the power supply before leaving home.

Can iTwin do one-to-many connections?

iTwin enables a simple and secure, one-to-one connection between any two computers running Microsoft Windows 7, XP or Vista (32-bit or 64-bit). Interested in a one-to-many feature? Please email us at feedback@iTwin.com.

What operating systems are currently supported?

iTwin currently supports Microsoft Windows 7, Windows XP and Windows Vista, (32-bit & 64-bit). The two computers connected to each other via iTwin can be running two different operating systems.

I own multiple iTwins. Can I pair any two halves?

Yes. You can connect any two halves and plug them into an online computer to “pair” those two halves. Any previous association that either of those two halves had with another iTwin will be instantly disabled.

What has the press said?

iTwin has received a lot of praise in the tech and popular press, from Financial Times to Engadget and Gizmodo. Praise for iTwin is shown on our Press Page.

Where do I enter the disable code, to disconnect the two halves of my iTwin?

When you pair the two halves of your iTwin, we’ll ask for your email address so that we can send you a special email. The subject line of this email will be: [iTwin] Your Device Disable Code.In case this important email gets filtered, check your spam folder. In this email, we’ll send you a disable URL. Click on the URL to disable the connection between the two halves of iTwin. We’ll also send you a unique disable code. You can also enter this unique disable code here.

Once disabled, can I reconnect the two halves of iTwin?

To re-enable your iTwin device, simply “pair” the two halves of an iTwin and you are ready to go.You can “pair” the two halves by connecting them together and plugging them into your computer. (Internet connection required).

What software application gets used when I remotely edit a file?

To use iTwin to edit a file that is stored on a remote computer, you can double-click on it in the iTwin ‘remote files’ window. If you double-click, the software application that gets used to open the file from your local computer depends on the default application preferences of your local computer. Alternatively, you can right-click on the file and choose among the available software applications installed on your local computer.

Can you even edit video or image files remotely?

Yes you can. Using iTwin, you can remotely edit any type of file on the remote computer if the appropriate application is installed on that remote computer. For example, you can share a Photoshop image file (that’s a .psd file), and you can then remotely edit this file.

Can it be edited on both sides like google docs?

Currently, iTwin only allows you to edit a file on one computer at any given moment of time. You can edit a local file and save it. Then you can open a remote file to edit and save it. Once done, the local files can be opened and re-edited. In the event where a single file is being edited by two separate computers at once, iTwin will ask you to choose to save one of the two edited copies.

Can I use it in a public computer?

Yes, you can use iTwin on a public computer. You might not wish to save any files on that public computer – in this case, simply use iTwin to remotely edit or view files located on your home or office computer. When you unplug the half of iTwin from the public computer, any temp files created by the viewing or remote editing process are purged.

Does the data go through some offsite iTwin server?

If the two halves of iTwin are plugged into a remote and local computer in the same network, then the data is transferred directly between the computers. If the remote and local computers are on different networks, then the data goes through our relay server. Since all the data which is relayed is encrypted and the encryption key is only stored on the two halves of iTwin, your data is completely safe.

What about Malware?

iTwin does not facilitate malware distribution. Malware spreads through regular USB drives, when a malicious program executes and writes itself to the USB drive automatically (without your permission or without you even realizing it). When the infected USB drive is plugged into another computer, the software may be able to automatically run. There are two necessary conditions for malware spread.

  • 1) Infected File should be copied to a new computer.
  • 2) Infected File should executed on the new computer.

With iTwin, you explicitly select the files that needs to be copied. And the iTwin device does not store any unauthorized files on itself – it only stores iTwin application files. Malicious files cannot trick iTwin into copying files automatically. However, if you use iTwin (or any file transfer system) to knowingly copy suspicious files on to your computer and you execute them (by clicking on them) you might be opening malware.

Does it work on an intranet setting without internet?

No. iTwin does not work within the intranet setting without any Internet access. iTwin requires the computers it’s plugged into to be connected to the Internet.

I am getting a message about iTwinTrust server and the time zone. What should I do?

Make sure that your Windows clock is set to the correct time for your location. Make sure that the Windows clock (on the system tray) is set to the correct timezone for your location. Setting these correctly is a security measure, and helps iTwin synchronise your files.

Why can’t I open one of my remote files ?

You cannot remotely edit or copy some types of remote files (including .doc and .xls files) if they are already open on the remote machine. This is an extension of a Windows restriction.

Why is iTwin not installing itself?

If autorun is not enabled on your computer, right click on the CD Drive: iTwin, and choose ‘Open’, then click on iTwin.exe.

Am I able to pair two halves of differently colored iTwins?

Yes. You can pair two halves of differently colored iTwins.

What if I have multiple user accounts on my computer?

You must remain logged in on the computer in order to use iTwin to access the files on that computer. So if you share the computer, for example with family members, you should make sure they do not log you out, as this will make your iTwin files inaccessible. If you are using iTwin to access files on another person’s computer, that person must remain logged in for the files to be accessible. In other words, the person that dragged files into the iTwin Local Folder must remain logged in, in order for those files to be accessible.

What recognition has iTwin received?

iTwin was shortlisted in TechCrunch50, in September 2009 in Silicon Valley. The iTwin team received a special invitation to TechCrunch’s tokyoCamp in Japan. iTwin has won a Singapore Design Merit Award. iTwin was selected as one of the one of the top 4 technologies at Asia’s biggest ICT conference, Communic’Asia 2010. Stay tuned!

Is iTwin a USB flash drive?

No, iTwin does not store any data on itself. Instead, it provides a secure encrypted connection to a remote computer, allowing the users to access their data. Unlike a flash drive, there is no storage limit, except the size of the hard disk of the remote computer.

Does iTwin use bluetooth, Wi-Fi?

iTwin uses the Internet connection of the local computer to connect to the remote computer. If the local computer is on Wi-Fi, then iTwin will make use of the Wi-Fi. It does not utilise bluetooth for communication.

Does iTwin work through all firewalls?

iTwin works through firewalls except when they are setup to allow traffic only to pre-defined, white-listed sites and services. In such a case, iTwin would not work, until the Administrator of the network white-lists iTwin’s server. This is typically done for commonly used services such as Skype etc.

If I have a Mac with a Windows OS installed on a virtual machine, will iTwin work on that?

Yes, iTwin will work in such a configuration. And, of course, iTwin will also work on Boot Camp on a Mac.

If I were to ask someone at home to drag and drop more files while I’m at work, would I be able to access the newly dragged and dropped files? Or can files only be shared when both halves of iTwin are ‘paired’ together in my home machine and then dragged and dropped?

You will be able to access the newly dragged files, as these are now available for on-the-go access. They’ll be visible to you when you refresh the ‘remote’ folder.


Comparison Between Aakash and UbiSlate 7 Tablet Models

We have already been informing you about all possible details – technical specs, features, prices, availability for the Akash computer tablet as well as its upgraded model UbiSlate tablet (aka Aakash-2 tablet). Now, when Aakash tablet has finally been made available for sale online and UbiSlate is available for online pre-booking, most of the users are some how confused about the difference between Aakash Tablet PC and UbiSlate tablet. We can also blame the company as well as Indian Govt. for this confusion. This is because at the time of launch, people just came to know about one name i.e. Aakash Tablet. However, Aakash tablet was subsidised as it was targeted to be a students model of the tablet. However, subsequently, company DataWind and Indian Govt. started taking different Aakash tablet models which they wanted to sell in the retail market ( i.e. non-student model). Now, obviously, retail model was not be subsidised as company would like to make some profits as well which could only be possible by keeping retail model as a separate and non-subsidised. Then, it was named UbiSlate to keep it separate from Aakash tablet and to give some more value for additional money being spent by retail customers, company decided to put some additional features in the retail model. So, although UbiSlate or UbiSlate 7 model of the tablet is built on the same architecture and hardware, it however differs slightly on technical specs and have some additional features. So, if you are also one of those who wanted to buy this world’s cheapest tablet but somehow feeling confused between Aakash tablet vs Ubislate Tablet, then you can check below the comparison between Aakash tablet and UbiSlate 7 Tablet to see and understand their technical specs and features.

Also see how Aakash tablet’s manufacturing company Datawind CEO Suneet Singh Tulidescribed about the facts that could led him to make world’s cheapest tablet pc.


Comparison and difference between Aakash Tablet and UbiSlate 7 Tablet (Aakash-2)

Here is a quick comparison between Aakash tablet and UbiSlate 7 tablet (Aakash-2).

Also have a look at the Aakash tablet’s comparison with magnum pepper tablet (another most cheap tablet PC).

Microprocessor (Aakash vs UbiSlate 7 Tablet Comparison)

Aakash Tablet has the processor Arm11 – 366Mhz while its upgraded version UbiSlate 7 tablet has Cortex A8 – 700 Mhz processor.


As far as comparison between Aakash tablet and UbiSlate tablet battery is concerned, Aakash tablet has the 2100 mAh battery whereas UbiSlate 7 tablet has 3200 mAh battery.

Operating System (OS)

Both tablets viz student model Aakash tablet as well as upgraded version retail model UbiSlate 7 tablet are based on Google’s Android operating system. However, Aakash tablet is based on Android 2.2 Froyo OS while UbiSlate 7 tablet is based on Android 2.3 Gingerbread.

Network, SIM, Web and Internet Connectivity (WiFi, GPRS, SIM)

If we see the comparison between Aakash tablet and UbiSlate tablet on network and web connectivity, subsidised student’s model Aakash tablet has WiFi for web access. The upgraded UbiSlate 7 tablet, however, has WiFi as well as GPRS both for web access. UbiSlate 7 Tablet also has a SIM and mobile phone functionality.

3G Connectivity (Aakash vs UbiSlate 7 Tablet Comparison)

The upgraded retail model UbiSlate 7 tablet is expected to have 3G connectivity via an external 3G dongle.

Front Facing Camera

UbiSlate 7 tablet model is expected to have a front facing camera as well for video chat which is missing in basic students model Aakash tablet.

Screen and RAM Size

Though there is not much clarity on this, it is however, expected that screen as well as RAM in upgraded UbiSlate 7 tablet model is expected to be better than Aakash tablet.

Pricing Comparison between Aakash Tablet and  UbiSlate 7 Tablet)

Aakash tablet is available at a price of Rs 2500 whereas UbiSlate 7 tablet is available at a price of Rs 2999.

Availability /Selling /Retailing

Aakash tablet has been made available for immediate sale online now where as UbiSlate 7 tablet is expected to be available by end-January 2012.

You can buy Aakash Tablet online with Cash on Delivery payment method and get it delivered within a weeks time.

You can pre-book or buy UbiSlate online to be able to get it by late January 2012 when it is made available in the retail market for delivery. http://www.ubislate.com/prebook.html



Operating System, Kernel and Types of kernels

What is Operating System, Kernel and Types of kernels?


1. What Is Kernel?

A kernel is a central component of an operating system. It acts as an interface between the user applications and the hardware. The sole aim of the kernel is to manage the communication between the software (user level applications) and the hardware (CPU, disk memory etc). The main tasks of the kernel are :

  • Process management
  • Device management
  • Memory management
  • Interrupt handling
  • I/O communication
  • File system…etc..

2. Is LINUX A Kernel Or An Operating System?

Well, there is a difference between kernel and OS. Kernel as described above is the heart of OS which manages the core features of an OS while if some useful applications and utilities are added over the kernel, then the complete package becomes an OS. So, it can easily be said that an operating system consists of a kernel space and a user space.

So, we can say that Linux is a kernel as it does not include applications like file-system utilities, windowing systems and graphical desktops, system administrator commands, text editors, compilers etc. So, various companies add these kind of applications over linux kernel and provide their operating system like ubuntu, suse, centOS, redHat etc.

3. Types Of Kernels

Kernels may be classified mainly in two categories

  1. Monolithic
  2. Micro Kernel

1 Monolithic Kernels

Earlier in this type of kernel architecture, all the basic system services like process and memory management, interrupt handling etc were packaged into a single module in kernel space. This type of architecture led to some serious drawbacks like 1) Size of kernel, which was huge. 2)Poor maintainability, which means bug fixing or addition of new features resulted in recompilation of the whole kernel which could consume hours

In a modern day approach to monolithic architecture, the kernel consists of different modules which can be dynamically loaded and un-loaded. This modular approach allows easy extension of OS’s capabilities. With this approach, maintainability of kernel became very easy as only the concerned module needs to be loaded and unloaded every time there is a change or bug fix in a particular module. So, there is no need to bring down and recompile the whole kernel for a smallest bit of change. Also, stripping of kernel for various platforms (say for embedded devices etc) became very easy as we can easily unload the module that we do not want.

Linux follows the monolithic modular approach

2 Microkernels

This architecture majorly caters to the problem of ever growing size of kernel code which we could not control in the monolithic approach. This architecture allows some basic services like device driver management, protocol stack, file system etc to run in user space. This reduces the kernel code size and also increases the security and stability of OS as we have the bare minimum code running in kernel. So, if suppose a basic service like network service crashes due to buffer overflow, then only the networking service’s memory would be corrupted, leaving the rest of the system still functional.

In this architecture, all the basic OS services which are made part of user space are made to run as servers which are used by other programs in the system through inter process communication (IPC). eg: we have servers for device drivers, network protocol stacks, file systems, graphics, etc. Microkernel servers are essentially daemon programs like any others, except that the kernel grants some of them privileges to interact with parts of physical memory that are otherwise off limits to most programs. This allows some servers, particularly device drivers, to interact directly with hardware. These servers are started at the system start-up.

So, what the bare minimum that microKernel architecture recommends in kernel space?

  • Managing memory protection
  • Process scheduling
  • Inter Process communication (IPC)

Apart from the above, all other basic services can be made part of user space and can be run in the form of servers.

QNX follows the Microkernel approach


What are Torrents and How they Work ?



What are torrent?


Torrents are P2P(Peer to Peer) software compatible files they are used to share files in P2P network environments. For running torrents you need to install a specialised P2P software.

Torrents use a Protocols for transfer of files The Bit-Torrent protocol is one of the most popular and common protocols used by torrent clients for sharing of large data files. This Protocol was also created by Bram Cohen while Creating BitTorrent(torrent client) in April 2001…

What is P2P?

P2P -> Peer-to-Peer as the name suggests is a network of computers that communicate with each other by using specialised P2P softwares…

What is a tracker?

A tracker is a server that assists the communication between peers(you and other people using client) actually it acts like a medium between all the peers to communicate. It is mainly used to get information about the peers , and other statistics..

What does torrent file contains?

A torrent file contains urls of multiple trackers and metadata of the files shared and the tracker. If you just edit a torrent file you will see some un-understandable garbage data all over the file…This is because the torrent files are encoded with ‘Bencode’.

The concept of seeders and leechers

The seeders are the people that have already downloaded the file (in full or part) and are open for uploading i.e. allow others to download

Leechers are the people those are downloading the file.

So, the more the seeders the faster you can download.

How torrent actually work?

The main feature of a torrent client is that it can download large files without heavy load on the network and server computer and uses P2P network for getting the job done …

Rather than connecting to a single server host on the network , Torrent Client connects to a large group of hosts to download and upload a file simultaneously. Each host on the network behaves as a client as well as a server.

Let us take a small example.

You want to download a 100 MB file and you are open to upload the same file as well. Now this 100 MB file is actually divided into small parts.

Say 100 parts of 1 MB each.

You are downloading the file and say it is 5% complete. In the 5% of your completion you have say 3 of 100 parts as done.

Now for those 3 completed parts your torrent client will act as seeder and for rest 97 parts your torrent client will act as leecher.

This feature allows even the users with low bandwidth to download and upload files to multiple recipients

For uploading a file the person first create a torrent file that can be distributed over FTP , HTTP etc..Then the file is hosted on his machine and acts as a Bit-Torrent node and serves as a seed. Other people with torrent files can give it to their own Bit-Torrent Node which acts as a peer , seed , leech ..Then the file is downloaded by connecting to other seeds , peers..

The first thing a torrent client does is to get the initial reception of peer data from the tracker url (located in the torrent file) Then after getting the peer information the torrent client start downloading files. The files shared by a torrent are converted to fragments/pieces these fragments are small sized files which are easier to transfer. It’s done so that we could download each fragment from a different peer thus increasing the transfer speed and less chances of corruption..

The authenticity of each file part is verified by a crypto graphical hash contained in the torrent file. During the whole transfer the torrent client often checks the tracker url for the peer stats(New peers connected)..As a peer completes the download it becomes a seed.

The health of a torrent depends on the shift of users from leechers to seeders..

Downloading/Installing torrents :-

First thing we need is a torrent client

  1. http://www.bittorrent.com/
  2. http://www.utorrent.com/

The next thing is to find a site which are hosting torrents of our choice

  1. http://www.mininova.org
  2. http://thepiratebay.org

You should be able to download anything now.

Just open the torrent file found from above sites into the torrent software of your choice.
Depending on your torrent client software, you can tweak around the settings according to your needs like increase the no of fragments, increasing the fragment size etc etc…




Source: Go4Experts

Epic …. The Indian Browser … It has more than google’s Chrome ….

Epic is a web browser based on Mozilla Firefox developed by Hidden Reflex specifically customized to the taste of Indian users, which was released in July 2010. Similar to Flock, the browser has several preinstalled widgets such as social networking, chat clients and email facilities integrated into the browser. It is dubbed as the first web browser from India and also features the first integrated virus protection in a browser powered by ESET.

Epic is available as a free download which currently supports Microsoft Windows platform.


Epic was released on 15 July 2010. It is developed by Hidden Reflex, a software company founded by Alok Bharadwaj in 2008 which is based on Bangalore, India.


Epic was designed specifically for Indian users. It is bundled with lots of apps like a transliterator for Indian scripts, a web snippet tool, timer, to do list, a full featured text editor, games, Google maps, clients for chatting, social networking such as Orkut, Facebook and Twitter, email apps, and several other installable web apps. It features a huge collection of themes and wall papers featuring subjects related to India. Epic is claimed to be the first web browser featuring built in antivirus and anti phishing protection. Epic is currently available for Windows, though Linux and Mac versions are also expected.

Epic claims there are over 1500 free applications that will work with the browser, as well as many themes and wallpapers.

Epic currently supports 12 Indian languages including Kannada, Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Sanskrit, Nepali, Tamil, Malayalam and Urdu. There’s additional transliteration support for Arabic, Persian, Russian, and Greek. The Epic browser is expected to be a big hit among the Indian users.

The logo of Epic browser denotes the Indian tricolor flag (Saffron, White and Green) enveloping a sphere (the earth) in a tree like fashion. The browser also emcompasses numerous Indian wallpapers and themes.



The Epic browser is now available for download from here.


Source: Wikipedia, Techtree.com

Google goes musical …. It’s amazing … Ohh!!! … It’s Google… :)

Google goes musical ….

Making search more musical

Every day we get millions of search queries about music. You want to know more about your favorite artists, find that new album or iconic song or figure out the name of that tune stuck in your head. In fact, according to Insights for Search, two of the top 10 queries in the U.S. are music-related. But often, if your answer is in a song, it can take a while to get there. We call this “time to result” — and we’re always looking for ways to reduce it.

Today, we’re rolling out a search feature that does just that by enabling you to search and more easily discover millions of songs, all via a simple Google web search. If you’re searching for music, “time to result” is really “time to music.” Now, when you enter a music-related query — like the name of a song, artist or album — your search results will include links to an audio preview of those songs provided by our music search partners MySpace (which just acquired iLike) or Lala. When you click the result you’ll be able to listen to an audio preview of the song directly from one of those partners. For example, if I search for [21st century breakdown], the first results provide links to songs from Green Day’s new album. MySpace and Lala also provide links to purchase the full song.

Many times, though, you don’t know the name of the song or the artist who sings it. Maybe you remember only the chorus — or maybe you remember who sang it, but you forgot the exact name of the song. If you’ve ever heard a catchy song in a car or cafe, but just can’t figure out the name of the song, you’ll know what I’m talking about. This search feature also helps you find many of those songs by entering a search containing a line or two of lyrics. So if I search for [static silhouette somehow], I’ll get results for Phoenix’s song “Rome.”

Finally, a search engine should also be able to help you discover music you’ll like, even if you can’t tell it what exactly you want to hear. We’ve partnered with Pandora, imeem and Rhapsody to include links to their sites where you can discover music related to your queries as well.

This feature doesn’t just make search better. It also helps people discover new sources of licensed music online while helping artists to discover new generations of fans and reconnect with longtime listeners. Our users love music, and this tool introduces millions of music seekers in the U.S. to a new generation of licensed online music services, from MySpace and Lala to Pandora, imeem and Rhapsody.

Of course, this is just a first step toward making search more musical. There’s a lot of music out there in the world, and in some instances, we may not return links to the song you’re looking for. But by combining the strength of Google’s search algorithms with our music search partners’ efforts to increase the comprehensiveness of their music content, we’re on track to answer more of your rhymes with the right rhythms.

We’ll be rolling this feature out gradually to users across the U.S. over the next day. To learn more, check out this page or watch the video below. As we said back when we first announced universal search, the best answer is still the best answer, whether it’s in the form of a video, an image, a magazine — or a song. And of course, the best way to know you’ve found the music you were looking for is to hear it. Well, let the music begin!


post: Google’s official blog

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