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Archive for February, 2011

New Motorola DEFY Review

Motorola DEFY:


When you buy an expensive gadget like today’s smartphones that cost as much as your monthly salary, you’d like to guard your precious from being a victim of a clumsy accident. But life is full of such sorry surprises, and there are times when we drop our phones – sometimes fortunately on office carpet floors, while sometimes on concrete roads. Worse is a fact that most phones today have large touchscreens, and god forbid if it were to fall flat on the face resulting in a cracked display.

And its not just phones falling, there are other circumstances that may wreck your phone. Using you phone duing a heavy downpour is also quite tricky. I cannot even imagine the plight of somebody who suffers from excessive sweating and has to constantly wipe his phone for the fear of the ear-piece going bad.

To counter this, there have been attempts by phone makers to make something that can withstand these troubles. The most recent of these is the Samsung Marine. But other than the commendable toughness, it was a mere spartan phone and not something that the gadget-savvy person would want to use.

On another topic, I had also expressed my desire to have that one good mid-range Android phone that gives me less compromises without costing a bomb. Enter Motorola DEFY — the answer to both the above mentioned problems. It is an Android phone that’s made to last, without making you sell your kidney in exchange. Read on to find out about our Tough Love for this ‘Rola!

motorola defy

Design and Build

The Motorola DEFY is a tough phone; it’s built to withstand water and dust. The darn thing is built like a tank and feels extremely solid in hand. We’ve tried throwing this phone on the floor, dipping it in a cup of water, and it has survived our torture till now. The display is protected by Corning’s now famous Gorilla glass — that is resistant to scratches. Rubbing pointy keys on it didn’t leave any sign of damage. The phone may appear large in the press shots, but trust me when I say that this is THE most comfortable 3.7-inch screened phone I’ve held. The dimensions and weight are fairly petite and it comfortably slips in and out of your pocket.

motorola defy

Most of its front face is occupied by the touchscreen. It is sufficiently large, and the high 854 x 480 pixel resolution delivers good crispness while reading text or photos and videos. It is sufficiently bright and the ambient light sensor makes it quickly adapt to surrounding lighting conditions. The touch response is also pretty accurate. Below that are all four of the Android-specific keys — menu, home, back and search. Their touch response is equally spot-on and they’re backlit too.

motorola defy side

Above the screen is an earpiece that’s well-protected from not just dust particles but even water droplets. There’s a tiny LED status light next to it that blinks if you have missed a phone call or received any other notification like a text message. There are only three physical buttons on the phone — the power button and the volume control keys. They are a little hard to press but we assume that’s a side-effect in trying to avoid any passage of water or dust via them. Once you get used to it, they aren’t too bad to use. The other two openings – the 3.5mm earphone jack at the top and the microUSB port to the left – are protected by rubber coverings.

motorola defy

At the back, you’ve got the camera sensor and a tiny singular LED flash. There’s a tiny hole next to the lens that acts as an opening for the secondary noise-cancellation microphone. The rubberised back plate is easily removable by the flick of a switch; revealing a fairly large 1540 mAh Lithium ion battery. The SIM card slot and the microSD card slot lie underneath the battery. The speaker opening is also at the end of the backplate.

motorola defy top

Overall, we were hard-pressed to cut any points when it came to the phone’s exterior.

User Interface and Performance

The DEFY runs Google’s Android 2.1 OS, which is two generations behind the latest 2.3 (Gingerbread) version. But when most new phones selling in the market feature at least Android 2.2 (Froyo), we were slightly disheartened.

Nonetheless, this version of Android is decorated with Motorola’s MOTOBLUR UI enhancement. Despite people’s opinion about it, we like it. There are a total of seven homescreens that can be easily sifted through, thanks to a bookmark-like menu that appears at the bottom. There are many things to like about it, such as the extra widgets that let you put a calendar in monthly view or toggle flight-mode or even add a sticky note; these are things that aren’t seen in vanilla versions of Android.

motorola defy UI

The Motorola on-screen QWERTY keyboard is well-designed and a breeze to type on with good word prediction and correction. If the keys feel too cramped in portrait mode for you, then flip it over sideways and you should find the landscape QWERTY keys to be well-sized and well-spaced. There’s also Swype built-in if you fancy text input without having to tap on those on-screen keys.

motorola defy UI

Adjusting the cursor on the screen is ripped off from the iPhone, with a magnifying rectangle instead of a typical magnifying glass. But hey, it works so we aren’t bitching. The default music player automatically downloads lyrics, thanks to the integration with the TuneWiki service that we’re fans of — nice touch Motorola, nice touch. Lastly, There’s a file manager built-in too.

Let’s talk of UI swiftness. The DEFY is powered by an 800 MHz ARM Cortex A8 processor with an ample-sounding 512MB RAM. In our experience, never did I feel the phone to be slow or laggy at any point of time. Yes, it may not be buttery smooth, but it definitely can’t be called laggy. Probably the only area we felt it lag was during pinch-zooming photos in the Gallery app; we assume that’s because all the images were stored on the memory card. Pinch-zooming on the browser on the other hand was fairly smooth. Thanks to the good screen resolution, reading websites on the browser was a pleasant affair; especially when you flip the phone sideways into landscape mode.

Another complaint we have was with the playback of our test DivX files, some of which had a slightly stuttered frame-rate. Note that these exact files may have played smoothly on an HVGA-screened 600MHz processor phone (like the Optimus P500), but we guess here the 800 MHz processor has to flex more for the DEFY’s higher WVGA screen resolution.

motorola defy UI

It is unfortunate that the DEFY runs Android 2.1, but it does implement a 2.2 feature in this version — mobile hotspot, which lets you turn your mobile phone into a wireless router. Also, you may not be able to install apps on an SD card on the DEFY yet, but the phone comes with an ample 2GB internal storage, out of which roughly 1.2GB storage is free for you to use. Another cool trick — this phone is DLNA certified and also has a built-in app for two-way sharing and streaming of media onto another DLNA certified device like a TV or a gaming console.

Network reception and Call Clarity

We’ve always had a high regard for Motorola when it comes to call quality and network reception. I even went on record with my Milestone review saying that it was the best phone for calling I’d ever used. The DEFY doesn’t let that expectation down — it had a great network reception. I never faced any dropped calls during the time of testing.

The earpiece volume was fairly loud and clear to me, and although people on the other end said that my voice sounded a little different, never did they complain about any lack in clarity. The loud-speaker on the DEFY is quite powerful, especially during phone-calls. On a sour note, people wanting to make video-calls will be disappointed to learn that the DEFY doesn’t have a front-facing camera.

To point out a network-related issue — My GPRS connection from time to time would just stop working. Now, I can’t put the blame on the DEFY since I’ve experienced the same issue with even other Android phones. But generally, turning the flight mode on and off again would resolve the issue in most cases, where in the case of the DEFY, a couple of times even restarting the phone didn’t help. I can’t say if the issue is with the operator or the phone, so till I try the DEFY with another operator, I’m going to give it the benefit of doubt.


The DEFY comes with a 5 megapixel autofocusing unit. There’s no physical shutter button, so you’ll have to use the on-screen one. Now, it won’t autofocus if you place your thumb over the virtual button, but as soon as you release, it focuses and takes the snap in a second. There’s no touch-to-focus either.

I’d call the quality of the snaps as decent. Despite good lighting, the photos appeared slightly dull and the darker colors also appeared a little over-saturated. Still, they were fairly clear and are worthy of uploading to your online photo gallery. The LED flash isn’t powerful and will help illuminate objects that are very close to it. It also captures decent clarity videos although in a low VGA resolution, but they turned out to be fairly smooth in terms of frame-rate. All in all — the Motorola DEFY isn’t a pro-camera phone, but it’ll get the job done when you really need it.

The audio quality via the bundled earphones is average. On connecting a better sounding pair, it did go up well enough for me not to carry my MP3 player everywhere.

Battery Life

Battery life has always been a sore point with Androids, so please don’t confuse our cheer over the DEFY’s battery life of almost an entire day with heavy usage. And by heavy, I mean HEAVY — hours of phone-calls, internet usage, downloading apps, taking snaps and monkeying around with the interface.

There’s also a power optimization tool that prevents the phone from using mobile Internet for certain hours at night. With that and moderate usage, you can expect this phone to last you more than a day.

Price and Verdict

The Motorola DEFY is selling right now for Rs. 18,100 at online stores. We wouldn’t call that over-the-top pricing, especially since you’re getting a really sturdy phone with a fair amount of features. From the time I’ve started using it, I’m absolutely loving this phone for what it is. The only real missing link for the DEFY would be the Android 2.2 update, which is speculated to be released in the second quarter of this year. That’s only going to make the phone compatible with more apps from the Android market, along with an improvement in the UI speed, thanks to the optimizations Froyo has brought upon.

If you’re looking for a good mid-range Android, then the DEFY is your only good choice — and we’re not saying it in a bad way at all! If the price of this phone drops down to Rs. 15-16k, and it gets blessed with the Android 2.2 update, then this deal is going to be really, really hard to resist.

Motorola DEFY Review

A midrange android that’s built to last

Dust/Water Proof and Sturdy Build, Extremely comfortable size and weight, Big high-resolution screen, Speedy interface, Thoughtful UI Customizations, Consistent Network reception, “Loud” speaker, Decent camera performance

Runs Android 2.1 (for now), no front-facing video-call camera, slight stutter in DivX playback

Expert Rating :


General 2G Network GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
3G Network HSDPA 900 / 2100
Announced 2010, September
Status Available. Released 2010, October
Size Dimensions 107 x 59 x 13.4 mm
Weight 118 g
Display Type TFT capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
Size 480 x 854 pixels, 3.7 inches
– Gorilla Glass display
– Touch sensitive controls
– MOTOBLUR UI with Live Widgets
– Multi-touch input method
– Accelerometer sensor for UI auto-rotate
– Proximity sensor for auto turn-off
Sound Alert types Vibration; MP3, WAV ringtones
Loudspeaker Yes
3.5mm jack Yes, check quality
Memory Phonebook Practically unlimited entries and fields, Photo call
Call records Practically unlimited
Internal 2 GB storage, 512 MB RAM
Card slot microSD, up to 32GB, 2GB included, buy memory
Data GPRS Class 12 (4+1/3+2/2+3/1+4 slots), 32 – 48 kbps
EDGE Class 12
3G HSDPA, 7.2 Mbps; HSUPA, 2 Mbps
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n, DLNA
Bluetooth Yes, v2.1 with A2DP
Infrared port No
USB Yes, microUSB v2.0
Camera Primary 5 MP, 2592х1944 pixels, autofocus, LED flash, check quality
Features Geo-tagging, image stabilization
Video Yes, VGA@30fps
Secondary No
Features OS Android OS, v2.1 (Eclair), upgradable to v2.2
CPU 800MHz Cortex-A8 processor, TI OMAP3610 chipset
Messaging SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, IM, Push Email
Browser HTML
Radio Stereo FM radio with RDS
Games Yes + downloadable
Colors Black, White
GPS Yes, with A-GPS support
Java Yes, MIDP 2.0
– Dustproof and water-resistant
– Digital compass
– MP3/WAV/WMA/AAC+ player
– MP4/WMV/H.263/H.264 player
– Google Search, Maps, Gmail, YouTube, Google Talk
– Facebook, Twitter, MySpace integration
– Document viewer
– Flash Lite
– Photo viewer/editor
– Organizer
– Voice memo/dial/commands
– Active noise cancellation with dedicated mic
– Predictive text input
Battery Standard battery, Li-Po 1540 mAh
Stand-by Up to 238 h
Talk time Up to 6 h 48 min
Misc SAR US 1.52 W/kg (head)     1.53 W/kg (body)
Price group

Google’s New Navigation Bar, Publicly Available

  • Google rolls out New Navigation Bar

  • Does away with underlined links and adds more color to the bar

The new navigation bar is slowly rolled out to all Google users. After more than 6 months of testing, the new navigation bar removes the clutter by grouping extraneous links in a menu inspired by Google Chrome. It also removes link underlining and replaces it with a colored bar. There’s more spacing between the links, so the new navigation bar works better on a touchscreen device.


Another change is that Google shows your name instead of your email address. For some reason, Google doesn’t link to the Google Profile and makes it more difficult to switch to a different account if you use multiple sign-in or Gmail delegation. Now you need to click “Switch account” to see the list of accounts you can use.

Unfortunately, Google didn’t manage to add the bar to all its services, so you’ll only see it if you use Google Web Search, Google Image Search, Google Realtime Search, Google Maps and Gmail.

Operating System, Kernel and Types of kernels

What is Operating System, Kernel and Types of kernels?


1. What Is Kernel?

A kernel is a central component of an operating system. It acts as an interface between the user applications and the hardware. The sole aim of the kernel is to manage the communication between the software (user level applications) and the hardware (CPU, disk memory etc). The main tasks of the kernel are :

  • Process management
  • Device management
  • Memory management
  • Interrupt handling
  • I/O communication
  • File system…etc..

2. Is LINUX A Kernel Or An Operating System?

Well, there is a difference between kernel and OS. Kernel as described above is the heart of OS which manages the core features of an OS while if some useful applications and utilities are added over the kernel, then the complete package becomes an OS. So, it can easily be said that an operating system consists of a kernel space and a user space.

So, we can say that Linux is a kernel as it does not include applications like file-system utilities, windowing systems and graphical desktops, system administrator commands, text editors, compilers etc. So, various companies add these kind of applications over linux kernel and provide their operating system like ubuntu, suse, centOS, redHat etc.

3. Types Of Kernels

Kernels may be classified mainly in two categories

  1. Monolithic
  2. Micro Kernel

1 Monolithic Kernels

Earlier in this type of kernel architecture, all the basic system services like process and memory management, interrupt handling etc were packaged into a single module in kernel space. This type of architecture led to some serious drawbacks like 1) Size of kernel, which was huge. 2)Poor maintainability, which means bug fixing or addition of new features resulted in recompilation of the whole kernel which could consume hours

In a modern day approach to monolithic architecture, the kernel consists of different modules which can be dynamically loaded and un-loaded. This modular approach allows easy extension of OS’s capabilities. With this approach, maintainability of kernel became very easy as only the concerned module needs to be loaded and unloaded every time there is a change or bug fix in a particular module. So, there is no need to bring down and recompile the whole kernel for a smallest bit of change. Also, stripping of kernel for various platforms (say for embedded devices etc) became very easy as we can easily unload the module that we do not want.

Linux follows the monolithic modular approach

2 Microkernels

This architecture majorly caters to the problem of ever growing size of kernel code which we could not control in the monolithic approach. This architecture allows some basic services like device driver management, protocol stack, file system etc to run in user space. This reduces the kernel code size and also increases the security and stability of OS as we have the bare minimum code running in kernel. So, if suppose a basic service like network service crashes due to buffer overflow, then only the networking service’s memory would be corrupted, leaving the rest of the system still functional.

In this architecture, all the basic OS services which are made part of user space are made to run as servers which are used by other programs in the system through inter process communication (IPC). eg: we have servers for device drivers, network protocol stacks, file systems, graphics, etc. Microkernel servers are essentially daemon programs like any others, except that the kernel grants some of them privileges to interact with parts of physical memory that are otherwise off limits to most programs. This allows some servers, particularly device drivers, to interact directly with hardware. These servers are started at the system start-up.

So, what the bare minimum that microKernel architecture recommends in kernel space?

  • Managing memory protection
  • Process scheduling
  • Inter Process communication (IPC)

Apart from the above, all other basic services can be made part of user space and can be run in the form of servers.

QNX follows the Microkernel approach


What are Torrents and How they Work ?



What are torrent?


Torrents are P2P(Peer to Peer) software compatible files they are used to share files in P2P network environments. For running torrents you need to install a specialised P2P software.

Torrents use a Protocols for transfer of files The Bit-Torrent protocol is one of the most popular and common protocols used by torrent clients for sharing of large data files. This Protocol was also created by Bram Cohen while Creating BitTorrent(torrent client) in April 2001…

What is P2P?

P2P -> Peer-to-Peer as the name suggests is a network of computers that communicate with each other by using specialised P2P softwares…

What is a tracker?

A tracker is a server that assists the communication between peers(you and other people using client) actually it acts like a medium between all the peers to communicate. It is mainly used to get information about the peers , and other statistics..

What does torrent file contains?

A torrent file contains urls of multiple trackers and metadata of the files shared and the tracker. If you just edit a torrent file you will see some un-understandable garbage data all over the file…This is because the torrent files are encoded with ‘Bencode’.

The concept of seeders and leechers

The seeders are the people that have already downloaded the file (in full or part) and are open for uploading i.e. allow others to download

Leechers are the people those are downloading the file.

So, the more the seeders the faster you can download.

How torrent actually work?

The main feature of a torrent client is that it can download large files without heavy load on the network and server computer and uses P2P network for getting the job done …

Rather than connecting to a single server host on the network , Torrent Client connects to a large group of hosts to download and upload a file simultaneously. Each host on the network behaves as a client as well as a server.

Let us take a small example.

You want to download a 100 MB file and you are open to upload the same file as well. Now this 100 MB file is actually divided into small parts.

Say 100 parts of 1 MB each.

You are downloading the file and say it is 5% complete. In the 5% of your completion you have say 3 of 100 parts as done.

Now for those 3 completed parts your torrent client will act as seeder and for rest 97 parts your torrent client will act as leecher.

This feature allows even the users with low bandwidth to download and upload files to multiple recipients

For uploading a file the person first create a torrent file that can be distributed over FTP , HTTP etc..Then the file is hosted on his machine and acts as a Bit-Torrent node and serves as a seed. Other people with torrent files can give it to their own Bit-Torrent Node which acts as a peer , seed , leech ..Then the file is downloaded by connecting to other seeds , peers..

The first thing a torrent client does is to get the initial reception of peer data from the tracker url (located in the torrent file) Then after getting the peer information the torrent client start downloading files. The files shared by a torrent are converted to fragments/pieces these fragments are small sized files which are easier to transfer. It’s done so that we could download each fragment from a different peer thus increasing the transfer speed and less chances of corruption..

The authenticity of each file part is verified by a crypto graphical hash contained in the torrent file. During the whole transfer the torrent client often checks the tracker url for the peer stats(New peers connected)..As a peer completes the download it becomes a seed.

The health of a torrent depends on the shift of users from leechers to seeders..

Downloading/Installing torrents :-

First thing we need is a torrent client

  1. http://www.bittorrent.com/
  2. http://www.utorrent.com/

The next thing is to find a site which are hosting torrents of our choice

  1. http://www.mininova.org
  2. http://thepiratebay.org

You should be able to download anything now.

Just open the torrent file found from above sites into the torrent software of your choice.
Depending on your torrent client software, you can tweak around the settings according to your needs like increase the no of fragments, increasing the fragment size etc etc…




Source: Go4Experts

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